Indicator database

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    Biological quality of lakes

    This indicator represents the Cyanobacteria percentage of total phytoplankton biomass. This is an indicator of eutrophication.

    Ecological Footprint

    The Ecological Footprint represents the productive area required to provide the renewable resources humanity is using, as well the area required to absorb the waste emitted.

    Emissions of organic matter

    The emission of organic matter is a key environmental problem. Among the pollutants mentioned are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). BOD, COD and TOC are key indicators of the oxygen content of water.

    Emissions of primary particulates — outlook from LRTAP

    This indicator tracks trends and presents projections in emissions of primary particulate PM10 and PM2,5.
    "PM10" means particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 mm aerodynamic diameter;
    "PM2,5" means particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 2,5mm aerodynamic diameter.

    Energy efficiency and energy consumption in industry

    Specific consumption per tonne produced : Energy consumption divided by the physical production (for steel, cement , paper)

    Energy efficiency index of industry (ODEX) is a weighted average of the specific consumption index of 10 manufacturing branches.
    (source; EEA,, 11-2-2015)

    Energy-related emissions of particulate matter

    Combination of primary PM10 data, and emissions of secondary PM10 precursors (SO2 and NOx and NH3) weighted using aerosol formation factors (according to de Leeuw, 2002) NOx = 0.88, SO2 = 0.54 and NH3 = 0.64. Gaps in reported data have been filled by EEA/ETC-ACC where necessary using simple interpolation techniques.
    (Source: EEA,

    Freshwater quality

    This indicator shows:

    1. Annual median concentrations in rivers of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and ammonium (NH4).

    2. Trends in concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus and nitrate in lakes, and nitrate in groundwater bodies.


    The concentration of nitrate is expressed as mg nitrate (NO3)/l for groundwater and mg nitrate-nitrogen (mg NO3-N/l) for rivers and orthophosphate and total phosphorus as mg P/l.

    Global and European temperature

    This indicator shows absolute changes and rates of change in average near-surface temperature for the globe and for a region covering Europe. (Definition of EEA)

    Habitats of European interest

    The indicator shows changes in the conservation status of habitats of European interest.
    It is based on data collected under the reporting obligations of Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

    Invasive alien species in Europe

    Number of the listed 'worst' terrestrial and freshwater invasive alien species in each country". (EEA, from the title of figure 4 from (

    Land cover distribution and change — outlook from MNP

    Land cover distribution and change is a modeled prediction of the distribution of land-cover types (tropical rain forest; desert; tundra; etc.) across the total world terrestrial area in 2050 based on different scenarios.

    Municipal waste generation, total

    Total Municipal waste consists of waste generated by households primarily, but may also include similar wastes generated by small businesses and public institutions and collected by the municipality.

    (Source Eurostat,

    Nationally designated areas

    Areas designated under national legislation for the purpose of nature protection including sites such as national parks and nature reserves.

    Nitrogen oxides emissions

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are together referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOX). Combustion of fossil fuels is by far the dominant source of NOX emissions. The emissions are not dependent solely on the amount of nitrogen in the fuel but also on the air - fuel mix ratio. High temperatures and oxidation-rich conditions generally favour NOX formation in combustion.NOX contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication which in turn can lead to potential changes occurring in soil and water quality.

    Soil erosion by water

    EU-wide estimates of erosion are based on modelling studies. Most models contain a rainfall erosivity factor and a soil erodibility factor that reflect average precipitation conditions. Typical values for these factors may inadequately represent the impact of extreme rainfall. Therefore, the uncertainty of modelled erosion risk is high, especially at local level.
    (Source, EEA,, 12-2-2015)

    Soil organic carbon

    Soil organic carbon is the carbon (C) stored in soil organic matter (SOM). Organic carbon (OC) enters the soil through the decomposition of plant and animal residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganisms, and soil biota. SOM is the organic fraction of soil exclusive of nondecomposed plant and animal residues. Nevertheless, most analytical methods do not distinguish between decomposed and non-decomposed residues. SOM is a heterogeneous, dynamic substance that varies in particle size, C content, decomposition rate, and turnover time.

    Species diversity

    Species diversity is a measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness (the number of species in a community) and the evenness of species' abundances. Species diversity is one component of the concept of biodiversity.

    Conservation status of habitats by habitat group

    The indicator shows changes in the conservation status of habitats by habitat group.
    It is based on data collected under the reporting obligations of Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

    Ecolabel licenses

    This indicator is defined as the number of Ecolabel or "EU Flower" licences in European countries. The Community Ecolabel is awarded to products and services with reduced environmental impacts. It is administered by the European Commission and receives the support of all EU Member States and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Ecolabel criteria are discussed in the European Union Ecolabelling Board (EUEB) whose membership includes representatives from industry, environmental protection groups, consumer organisations and representatives for SMEs.

    Social protection expenditure, current, by function, gross and net (ESPROSS)

    "Social Protection encompasses all interventions from public or private bodies intended to relieve households and individuals of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs, provided that there is neither a simultaneous reciprocal nor an individual arrangement involved. The list of risks or needs that may give rise to social protection is, by convention, as follows: Sickness/Health care, Disability, Old age, Survivors, Family/children, Unemployment, Housing and Social exclusion not elsewhere classified".