Indicator database

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    Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas

    The indicator shows the fraction of the EU-28 urban population that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of certain pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 and B(a)P)) in excess of the EU limit or target values (EU, 2004, 2008) set for the protection of human health; and to concentrations of these pollutants in excess of the WHO Guidelines (WHO, 2000, 2006).

    It also shows the evolution of urban background levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3 and NO2 at the European level.

    Healthy life years and life expectancy at birth, by sex  

    The duration in years a person of a certain age can expect to live free of disability. Healthy life years serves as a benchmark for health in terms of work productivity and economic factors, the quality of life and the performance of healthcare systems.

    Self reported unmet need for medical examination or treatment, by income quintile   

    "This indicator is defined as the share of the population reporting that at least once in the previous 12 months they could not afford medical examination or treatment." The potential answers are problems of access (could not afford to, waiting list, too far to travel) or other (could not take time, fear, wanted to wait and see, didn't know any good doctor or specialist, other).

    Retrieved on 12.08.2014 from
    (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/tsdph270)

    People having a long-standing illness or health problem: by sex, age and income quintile

    The indicator is a measure of health, specifically addressing long-term (chronic) symptoms, health conditions or diseases.

    Retrieved from, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Health_statu..., 08.12.14)

    Self-perceived health: Self-perceived health by sex, age and labour status (%)

    An indicator based on the EU-SILC question (‘How is your health in general?’), with the following choices: 1) very good, 2) good, 3) fair, 4) bad, 5) very bad.

    Life expectancy at birth

    "The average number of years that a newborn could expect to live, if he or she were to pass through life exposed to the sex- and age-specific death rates prevailing at the time of his or her birth, for a specific year, in a given country, territory, or geographic area."
    Retrieved from, http://apps.who.int/gho/indicatorregistry/App_Main/view_indicator.aspx?i..., 12.08.2014

    How would you rate the quality of health services?

    This indicator is based on a question surveying the quality of the national health care system. Respondents choose on scale of one to ten, with 10 being of very high quality and 1 being of very low quality. The other two non-numerical options are "don't know" and "refusal."

    Daily calorie supply per capita by source - total

    This indicator shows the total daily calorie supply per capita and the split into calories from animal products and vegetal products .

    EU urban population exposed to PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value

    The indicator measures the percentage of population in urban areas with PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value (50 µg/m3). This daily limit should not be exceeded on more than 35 days in a calendar year. The exposure to PM10 pollution is estimated based upon PM10 measured at all urban monitoring stations, including urban and suburban traffic station types. The air quality data is collected by the European Environment Agency on an annual basis according to the Exchange of Information Decision (97/101/EC amended by the Commission Decision 2001/752/EC).

    Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)

    Indicator states total spending in a country on health as a proportion of its GDP. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.
    (World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.TOTL.ZS, 15-01-2015)

    Difficulty in seeing a doctor because of cost of seing the doctor

    The indicator measures difficulty in seeing a doctor because of cost being prohibitive. Respondents can choose from "very difficult", "a little difficult" to "not difficult at all."

    Retrieved from,
    http://eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_files/pubdocs/2012/64/..., 06.12.14

    Quality of national health service

    Participants were asked to grade the quality of health services in their country on a scale of 1 to 10, with "10" ranked best and "1" ranked worst. Other answers included refusal to answer or do not know.

    EQLS, 2012
    (http://eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_files/surveys/eqls/201...)

    Net social protection as a percentage of GDP

    "Net social protection benefits are defined as the value of social protection benefits excluding taxes and social contributions paid by the benefits recipients. They are complemented by the value of “Fiscal benefits” provided in the form of tax breaks that would be defined as social protection benefits, if they were provided in cash. Tax breaks promoting the provision of social protection or promoting private insurance plans are excluded.

    Number of Physicians per Thousand People

    The indicator measures the number of physicians available for 1,000 people. Physicians include generalists and specialists.

    Retrieved from, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS, 12.08.2014

    Public Expenditure on Health Prevention

    Public expenditure on prevention and public health services as a percentage of total expenditure of health.

    Trust in System of Health Care

    The indicator represents a percentage of the respondents that answered "a great deal" or "quite a lot" when polled on the confidence in the system of health care.

    Retrieved from, https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/download.asp?db=E&id=18275, pg.24, 12.12.2014

    Happy Planet Index rank order

    The HPI measures the extent to which countries deliver long, happy, sustainable lives for the people that live in them. The Index uses global data on life expectancy, experienced well-being and Ecological Footprint to calculate this.

    The index is an efficiency measure, it ranks countries on how many long and happy lives they produce per unit of environmental input.

    Population median age

    Age that divides the population in two parts of equal size, that is, there are as many persons with ages above the median as there are with ages below the median.

    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, http://esa.un.org/wpp/excel-Data/Population.htm, retrieved on 19.12.2014

    Better Life Index

    The Better Life index is an interactive tool that allows you to see how countries perform according to the importance you give to each of 11 topics.

    Environmental Performance Index

    Environmental Performance Index is an indicator that measures environmental performance compared to two main objectives: Environmental Health and Ecosystem Vitality. Environmental Health measures the protection of human health from environmental harm. Ecosystem Vitality measures ecosystem protection and resource management. These two objectives are further divided into nine issue categories that span high-priority environmental policy issues, including air quality, forests, fisheries, and climate and energy, among others.

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