Indicator database

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    Ammonia emissions

    The indicator measures emissions of Ammonia (NH3). It also provides information on emissions by sectors (e.g. Industrial processes; Road transport)

    Biological quality of lakes

    This indicator represents the Cyanobacteria percentage of total phytoplankton biomass. This is an indicator of eutrophication.

    Critical load exceedance for nitrogen

    Exceedance of critical loads for nitrogen deposition indicating risks for biodiversity loss in (semi)-natural ecosystems.
    (Source: EEA,, 6-2-2015)

    Damages from weather and climate-related events

    Number of natural disasters
    Overall and insured losses from natural disasters
    (source: EEA,, 11-2-2015)

    Distribution of plant species

    Expected average percentage of stable area of 856 plant species for two different climate scenarios.
    Retrieved from:
    on 10/02/2015

    Ecological Footprint

    The Ecological Footprint represents the productive area required to provide the renewable resources humanity is using, as well the area required to absorb the waste emitted.

    Emission of acidifying substances

    Emissions of organic matter

    The emission of organic matter is a key environmental problem. Among the pollutants mentioned are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). BOD, COD and TOC are key indicators of the oxygen content of water.

    Emissions of primary particulates — outlook from LRTAP

    This indicator tracks trends and presents projections in emissions of primary particulate PM10 and PM2,5.
    "PM10" means particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 mm aerodynamic diameter;
    "PM2,5" means particulate matter which passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 2,5mm aerodynamic diameter.

    Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions

    Total man-made emissions of the ‘Kyoto basket’ of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)). These gases are aggregated into a single unit using gas-specific global warming potential (GWP) factors.
    (Eurostat,, 9-2-2015)

    Energy-related emissions of particulate matter

    Combination of primary PM10 data, and emissions of secondary PM10 precursors (SO2 and NOx and NH3) weighted using aerosol formation factors (according to de Leeuw, 2002) NOx = 0.88, SO2 = 0.54 and NH3 = 0.64. Gaps in reported data have been filled by EEA/ETC-ACC where necessary using simple interpolation techniques.
    (Source: EEA,

    Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas

    The indicator shows the fraction of the EU-28 urban population that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of certain pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 and B(a)P)) in excess of the EU limit or target values (EU, 2004, 2008) set for the protection of human health; and to concentrations of these pollutants in excess of the WHO Guidelines (WHO, 2000, 2006).

    It also shows the evolution of urban background levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3 and NO2 at the European level.

    Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone

    "The indicator shows the ecosystem or crops areas at risk of exposure to harmful effects of ozone as a consequence of air pollution, and shows the state of change in acidification, eutrophication and ozone levels of the European environment."

    Retrieved from on 27/01/2015

    Forest growth

    This indicator measures forest area and volume of forest biomass.

    Freshwater quality

    This indicator shows:

    1. Annual median concentrations in rivers of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and ammonium (NH4).

    2. Trends in concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus and nitrate in lakes, and nitrate in groundwater bodies.


    The concentration of nitrate is expressed as mg nitrate (NO3)/l for groundwater and mg nitrate-nitrogen (mg NO3-N/l) for rivers and orthophosphate and total phosphorus as mg P/l.

    Fuel prices

    "The price of fuel in the EU, including the cost price, excise duty and VAT. Prices are in Euros per litre."

    (EEA,, 2014-12-17)

    Global and European temperature

    This indicator shows absolute changes and rates of change in average near-surface temperature for the globe and for a region covering Europe. (Definition of EEA)

    Habitats of European interest

    The indicator shows changes in the conservation status of habitats of European interest.
    It is based on data collected under the reporting obligations of Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

    Invasive alien species in Europe

    Number of the listed 'worst' terrestrial and freshwater invasive alien species in each country". (EEA, from the title of figure 4 from (

    Land cover distribution and change — outlook from MNP

    Land cover distribution and change is a modeled prediction of the distribution of land-cover types (tropical rain forest; desert; tundra; etc.) across the total world terrestrial area in 2050 based on different scenarios.