Indicator database

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    Ammonia emissions

    The indicator measures emissions of Ammonia (NH3). It also provides information on emissions by sectors (e.g. Industrial processes; Road transport)

    Critical load exceedance for nitrogen

    Exceedance of critical loads for nitrogen deposition indicating risks for biodiversity loss in (semi)-natural ecosystems.
    (Source: EEA,, 6-2-2015)

    Emission of acidifying substances

    Emissions of organic matter

    The emission of organic matter is a key environmental problem. Among the pollutants mentioned are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). BOD, COD and TOC are key indicators of the oxygen content of water.

    Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions

    Total man-made emissions of the ‘Kyoto basket’ of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)). These gases are aggregated into a single unit using gas-specific global warming potential (GWP) factors.
    (Eurostat,, 9-2-2015)

    Energy-related emissions of particulate matter

    Combination of primary PM10 data, and emissions of secondary PM10 precursors (SO2 and NOx and NH3) weighted using aerosol formation factors (according to de Leeuw, 2002) NOx = 0.88, SO2 = 0.54 and NH3 = 0.64. Gaps in reported data have been filled by EEA/ETC-ACC where necessary using simple interpolation techniques.
    (Source: EEA,

    Exceedance of air quality limit values in urban areas

    The indicator shows the fraction of the EU-28 urban population that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of certain pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 and B(a)P)) in excess of the EU limit or target values (EU, 2004, 2008) set for the protection of human health; and to concentrations of these pollutants in excess of the WHO Guidelines (WHO, 2000, 2006).

    It also shows the evolution of urban background levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3 and NO2 at the European level.

    Exposure of ecosystems to acidification, eutrophication and ozone

    "The indicator shows the ecosystem or crops areas at risk of exposure to harmful effects of ozone as a consequence of air pollution, and shows the state of change in acidification, eutrophication and ozone levels of the European environment."

    Retrieved from on 27/01/2015

    Fuel prices

    "The price of fuel in the EU, including the cost price, excise duty and VAT. Prices are in Euros per litre."

    (EEA,, 2014-12-17)

    Nitrogen oxides emissions

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are together referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOX). Combustion of fossil fuels is by far the dominant source of NOX emissions. The emissions are not dependent solely on the amount of nitrogen in the fuel but also on the air - fuel mix ratio. High temperatures and oxidation-rich conditions generally favour NOX formation in combustion.NOX contributes to acid deposition and eutrophication which in turn can lead to potential changes occurring in soil and water quality.

    Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances

    This indicator quantifies the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in Europe. ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer.

    The indicator presents production and consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS produced or consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone secretariat data are already provided in tonnes of Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP tonnes).

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), by source sector

    The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) by source sector.
    The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other.

    Greenhouse gas emissions

    Trend in annual total man-made emissions of the ‘Kyoto basket’ of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O and F-gases) in relation to 1990 emissions and the Kyoto base year.

    Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

    This indicator provides the share of renewable energies based on the final energy consumption of a country.

    EU urban population exposed to PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value

    The indicator measures the percentage of population in urban areas with PM10 concentrations exceeding the daily limit value (50 µg/m3). This daily limit should not be exceeded on more than 35 days in a calendar year. The exposure to PM10 pollution is estimated based upon PM10 measured at all urban monitoring stations, including urban and suburban traffic station types. The air quality data is collected by the European Environment Agency on an annual basis according to the Exchange of Information Decision (97/101/EC amended by the Commission Decision 2001/752/EC).

    Greenhouse gas emissions per capita

    "This indicator shows trends in man-made emissions of the 'Kyoto basket' of greenhouse gases per capita.
    The 'Kyoto basket' of greenhouse gases includes: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6))."
    (Eurostat,, 2015-03-23)

    Modal split of freight transport

    This indicator is defined as the percentage share of each mode of transport in total inland freight transport/ It includes transport by road, rail and inland waterways. .

    Modal split of passenger transport

    This indicator is defined as the percentage share of each mode of transport in total inland transport. Total inland transport includes transport by passenger cars, buses and coaches, and trains.

    Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP)

    "Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP."

    Consumption of ozone-depleting substances

    The consumption of ozone-depleting substances is the sum of the consumption of the ozone-depleting potential- weighted metric tons of all ozone-depleting substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. (Definition UN statistical handbook)